Ionescu, Ghiţă. Since the s, Communism in Romania, – has been the classic monograph on the “Ghiță Ionescu, Comunismul în România. Natura, scopul şi efectele regimului totalitar comunist în România,. .. La nivelul teoretic, al scopurilor proclamate, comunismul s-a pretins întruchiparea Ghiţă Ionescu, Communism in Rumania. As soon as they arrived, Soviet army commanders took the liberty to appoint their own officials across the country (Comunismul in Romania, by ghita Ionescu, p.

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Where the power elite was monolithic, but emancipated itself from Moscow, and this happened only in the case of communist Romania, the revolution was not only non-negotiated, but also violent, since the regime felt confident enough as to order the repression apparatus to shoot to kill and had its comunismlu obeyed in the first stage of the revolution.

Editura Arc, As an army officer, Major Paul Vasile, remembers, the square was literally packed with people: The coming to power of Mikhail S.

In the late s, independence from Moscow ceased to be a major source of legitimacy for the communist regime in Romania. Refrigerators represented another sign of progress, and those born in the s recall the familiar presence of a Fram refrigerator — named after Fram the polar bear, the main character of a popular novel for children by writer Cezar Petrescu — in the kitchen of their parents.

Compared towhen the overall installed capacity was only MW, in the overall installed capacity reached 1, MW.

Ionescu, Ghiţă. Communism in Romania, 1944–1962, in English, 1964. Book

As Aldcroft and Morewood have observed: After a while, she looked back and was surprised to see that the watchmen had vanished. Thus, it turned out that the events in Poland and Hungary favored the strategy of Gheorghiu-Dej to preserve his personal power and ultimately avoid de-Stalinization.

Nevertheless, one should not neglect vested political interests, i. For the transcript of the teleconference see ibid. It was in that particular political context that the general view of a Romanian revolution that calls for qualifying in order to stress its ambiguities, if not its utter failure, was born.


High-ranking members of the first post-communist regime, such as President Ion Iliescu or Prime Minister Petre Roman wrote in their memoirs about their involvement in, and the nature of, the revolution. In fact, a large part of the city was on strike.

For many, it was unbelievable. See also General Ion Pitulescu, ed. Thus, the policy of sustained investments in heavy industry resulted in increasing shortages of consumer goods that affected directly the population. Cambridge University Press,7—8. The food shortages and the power cuts of the s were by no means the ionexcu causes of the bloody revolution in Romania. Numerous authors have argued that violence should be considered an essential ingredient of a genuine revolution.

Structural FactorS and many Romanians still remember the black and ghifa Soviet- made Rubin Ruby TV set on which they watched the first cartoons of their childhood.

Replicas to a letter by G. To paraphrase Timothy Garton Ash, the six communist dictatorships that collapsed throughout the year need qualifying as much as the revolutions that brought them down.

In other cases, such as that of communist Hungary, where the attempts at reforming the command economy bore ionesvu fruit during the s, it was rather the relative dissatisfaction felt by major segments of the population that undermined the regime.

The solutions for solving the crisis of state socialism conceived by power elites and social actors in each particular context also determined the occurrence of a negotiated, non-negotiated, or iionescu revolution.

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Editura All63— In spite of their efficiency and capacity to produce clean energy, hydroelectric power plants require larger investments and longer construction periods than their thermoelectric counterparts. Again, the importance of the events resides in the fact that the ruling elite in Bucharest became concerned with legitimating itself in the eyes of the population.

During the First Five-Year Plan —urban growth averaged some 2. Chapter 2 addresses the peculiarities of the Romanian case and discusses the conflicting representations of the Romanian revolution in post-communism and the importance of a thorough event-centered reconstruction of the rapidly unfolding events in December Simply put, the communist regime in Romania collapsed on 22 December after protests by the population in several major urban centers, which the regime tried in vain to suppress.


Also, in the evening, at the Intercontinental Hotel, six fire engines were brought to back the riot police. In the Polish case, the relationship between economic performance and the outbreak of social protest has been addressed by numerous authors.

A member of the riot police troops was also injured. As Montias aptly puts it: Mesentea, la casa Silviei Valea. Thus, the column first crossed the city from east to west, south of the Bega Canal up to the Mary Square, and then headed north over the Canal towards the Orthodox Cathedral and the Opera Square.


At the same time, it was exactly the revolutionary nature of the events that has been often contested, if not utterly denied. One can go even further and argue that the process of reflecting on the phenomenon in Romania focuses almost entirely on ghia ambiguities 24 See Mircea Vasilescu, ed. So, take immediate measures 46 Traian Orban b.

On that occasion, a delegation came forward and submitted a list of requests in the name of their fellow workers. The Case of Romania, — Berkeley: Thus, the analysis of the economic factors that contributed to the demise of the communist regimes examined concentrates on the economic policies adopted by those regimes and their efforts aimed at reconciling their political goals uonescu the social and economic realities.

How many types of communist dictator- ships can one discern among ghira six ones that collapsed in ?