Berchemia discolor is a shrub or a tree m high; with a straight bole; rough, dark grey bark that flakes longitudinally; dense, rounded crown; slash yellow. Berchemia discolor. Authority, Hemsl. Family, Magnoliopsida:Rosidae: Rhamnales:Rhamnaceae. Synonyms. Common names. Editor. Ecocrop code, Widespread from Yemen, Somalia and Eritrea to South Africa in semi-arid bushland, wooded grassland as well as riverine vegetation, 0–1,
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Drylands have a multitude of livelihood problems where food insecurity is one of the serious impediments. Both transhumance and settled farmers make their living in the semiarid parts of east Shewa, Ethiopia.
They adapt partly to food shortage by using natural resources. The study objective was to determine nutritional value of fruit of Berchemia discolor and analyse the use and management practices and associated indigenous knowledge.
Before the laboratory analysis of fruit, the species was identified through focus group discussions and field observations. Mineral elements and phosphorus were determined in dry matter basis. Vitamin A and C were determined by spectrophotometer and redox titration respectively. Analysis of variance was done and means were separated by LSD at 0. Berchemia discolor is a candidate for dry land agroforestry and agrobiodiversity.
Ten major uses of B. Total carbohydrates, crude proteincrude lipid, moisture and total ash contents of the fruit pulps ranged from 4.
The calculated energy from total carbohydrates was Transhumance conserves Wild Edible Plants WEPs in pasture land and protect of vegetation, while settled farmers in traditional dryland agroforestry, in live fence and farm boarders.
Technologies for improved use and market chain need policy attention. In most parts of the world people continued to rely on wild plants from natural habitats to get becrhemia major portion of their food Turner et al. People of the world have depended on wild beechemia for their diets for hundreds of thousands of years and many people continue to rely on these species to meet at least part of their daily discolro and nutritional needs.
Different human groups living in similar or slightly different environments especially near natural forests betchemia dryland woodland and savannas use different basket of species from wild edible plants Turner et al. These differences have been explained from habitat differences and different levels of availability of foods and diversity Turner et al. An attitude is suggested to allow choices from the potentially available biodiversity of a set of species that are acceptable within a group and have acquired status within small human communities over time Turner et al.
Wild plant species, even for agrarian peoples or pastoralists who mainly used animal products, would have assumed a special importance during times of crop failure and famine Turner, Dsicolor consumption of wild edible plants is also common and widespread in food security areas and in species diverse areas Tairo, ; Feyssa et al. They also recommended the need for further research in this area. Wild foods provide diversity of nutrients in the diet of many households, especially in semi-arid and humid tropics Feyssa et al.
Therefore, wild edible plants play an indispensable role to disco,or in multiple ways including food, fuel wood, medicine, construction berfhemia, forage for livestock, environmental services and other uses yet not identified or known by different local communities Balemie and Kebebew, ; Teklehaymanot and Giday, Local farmers and transhumance pastoralists have accumulated Indigenous Knowledge IK about use and management of local plant resources and their various uses, conservation and management practices Asfaw, This generation old indigenous practices of local communities could provide baseline information for development activities in disvolor resources utilization, management, promotion of WEPs of east Shewa and Ethiopia in general.
In spite of the food and other multipurpose uses of Berchemia discolorresearch concerning the use, management and nutrition content of the species is inadequately documented in Ethiopia and obscure in the semiarid east Shewa.
This needs focused research to quantify the potential of the species to food and nutrition security. Hence, there is a need to reverse the underutilization of the species by informing policy using research finding on the use, management and nutrient content of the species Fentahun and Hager, Therefore, the focus of this study was to identify the use and management of Berchemia discolor and quantify the nutrient content and analyse implications to food security in drylands.
The climate of the area is hot with erratic, variable rainfall and unreliable for agricultural activities. Economic activities of the area are mostly livestock production but people in Boosat generally practice mixed agriculture consisting of livestock and crop production. Analysis of major food substances Collection and preparation of fruit sample for laboratory analysis: Prior to undertaking laboratory nutrient analysis on fruit sample, the species was identified through Focus Group Discussions FGDsinterview and field observations as described by Martin and Cotton weather people use the fruits for food and other multiple uses were recorded October, to September, in the study transects.
Data on density and frequency was collected from 6 transects laid in the study area following Cook and Stubbendieck and Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg Fruit samples were harvested in sample bags and taken to the laboratory for both proximate and essential nutrient analysis.
In order to obviate the effects of different environmental factors and soil types in particular on nutrient contents, care was taken to obtain samples from replicate locations within and between districts following standard procedure Armstrong and Hilton, for ripe fruits ofB.
The fruits were ground into fine powder partly using pestle and mortar and F micro plant grinding machine to fine particles and sieved through a mesh sieve of 1 mm. For each replicate sample from the study sites, all dried sub-samples were pooled together and each composite sample from the localities were analysed in duplicate per land use, giving a total of 4 replicates.
Nutrient contents were analysed on dry matter basis including moisture, carbohydrate, ash, crude fat, crude fiber and crude protein AOAC, Determination of moisture and ash content: The dried fruits and seeds were cooled in a desiccator and weighed.
The percentage loss in weight was expressed as percentage moisture content.
The percentage residue weighed was expressed as total ash content. Determination of crude lipid and crude fibre content: Two grams of dried sample in duplicates were weighed into a porous thimble and its mouth plugged with cotton.
Berchemia discolor – Useful Tropical Plants
The flask was heated on a heating mantle for 3 h to extract the crude lipid. After the extraction, the thimble was removed from the Soxhlet apparatus and the apparatus reassembled and heated over water bath for solvent recovery. The flask was heated on heating mantle for eight hours to extract the crude lipid. Crude fiber was estimated by acid-base digestion known as Coarse Fiber Analyzer, with 1. The residue after crude lipid extraction was put into a cm 3 beaker and cm of boiling 1.
Crude fiber content was expressed as a percentage loss in weight on ignition.
Determination of crude protein and carbohydrate: Micro-Kjeldahl was used to disoclor the nitrogen content of the samples. One gram dried powdered sample was placed into a cm 3 Kjeldahl digestion flask.
A Kjeldahl digestion tablet and 10 cm 3 of concentrated sulf uric acid were added and the sample was boiled until frothing stopped and the digested sample became clear. Crude protein was computed from sample percentage nitrogen content as determined by the Bechemia procedure, multiplied by a factor 6. The general factor of 6. Minerals, phosphorus and vitamins analysis: The mineral elements comprising sodium, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc and phosphorus were determined according to the method of Shahidi et al.
To the remaining material in each crucible, 5 nerchemia of de-ionized water was added and heated until a colourless solution was obtained. The mineral solution in each crucible was transferred into a mL volumetric flask by filtration through Whatman No.
This solution was berchemiia for elemental analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A 10 cm long cell was used and concentration of each element in the sample was calculated on percentage of dry matteri.
Phosphorus content of the digest was determined calorimetrically according to the method described by Nahapetian and Bassir Determination is by a modification of the vanillin method of Ranganna and Broadhurst and Joneswhich utilizes bwrchemia formation of coloured complexes between vanillin and condensed tannins and Catechin is used for the standard and results are expressed as catechin-equivalents.
Determination of energy value: The sample calorific value was calculated in kilocalories kcal multiplying by physiological energy factor composition 4, 4 and 9 of percentage proteins, fats and carbohydrates were used, bercehmia FAO,; USDA, ; Asibey-Berko and Tayie, The conversion factors dizcolor for physiological energy, which is the energy value remaining after losses due to digestion and metabolism and deducted from gross energy USDA, where one kcal equals 4.
Organic carbon OC in the fruit was obtained by subtracting total ash mineral from Adams et al. Ascorbic acid vitamin C was determined by redox titration following Pearson, ; Helmenstine, Nutrient composition of B. The sample calorific value was calculated in kcal discllor multiplying the percentages of carbohydrate, proteins and crude lipid of fruits by factors 4, 4 and 9, respectively as used by FAO, RangannaUSDAAsibey-Berko and Tayie and AOAC Organic Carbon OC in the fruit was calculated using formula:.
Statistical analysis for nutritional content was done through analysis of variance and means were separated by LSD at 0. Ethnobotanical information was described in descriptive dscolor and qualitatively under specific items following procedures of Martin and Cotton Habitat, abundance and densities of Berchemia discolor in the study area: The major habitats for B.
Berchemia discolor Images
Key informants indicated that there is tendency to conserve the species at farm boarders, live fences and enclosed pasture kalo areas. The relative abundance and densities of Berchemia discolor across land uses indicated it is reasonably abundant in the study area.
Relative frequency and densities in Boosat districts are Berchemia discolor was observed in the study area with flowers and fruits across eight months, May to December except between January to April. In the main rain season the vegetative growth is more prominent.
This seasonal abundance of the fruit signifies its contribution to supplement to household food supply and coping with food shortages. Drivers threatening Berchemia discolor in the study area: According to the key informants, B. Preference ranking across land uses indicated that both transhumance and settled farmers have relatively similar preference for fruits of B.
In terms of food taste, key informants from 6 study sites B. Comparison of means of nutrient contents of the fruit trees across land use systems: Proteins and carbohydrates B.
Thus, land use had significant effect on the nutritional content of B. Essential nutrient content of Berchemia discolor across land uses: The nutrients contents of fruits contents significantly varied vary for all variables analysed except for copper Cu and Condensed Tannin CT Table 5. Berchema, Calcium, Zinc, Magnesium, Manganese are relatively higher in a fruits collected from transhumance land use than settled farmers discolir use while iron is relatively higher from fruits collected from settled farmers land use.
Vitamin content of Berchemia discolor across land uses: Vitamin A content of B. Therefore, land use is a factor to be considered in domestication of the species. Moreover, the high vitamin C indicates the potential that consumption of the fruits can berchemiz metallic nutrients absorption such as iron. These two vitamins are also berchemka the critical vitamins berchwmia by current human nutrition security.