Seed -. Cite as: Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. Achyrocline+satureioides>. Introducción: Achyrocline satureioides es una planta que ha sido ampliamente utilizada en la medicina popular y los estudios experimentales confirman sus. Three Achyrocline satureioides (AS) inflorescences extracts were characterized: ( i) a freeze-dried extract prepared from the aqueous extractive.
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Achyrocline satureioides AS, family Asteraceae is a plant widely used in traditional medicine for stomach, digestive, and gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy.
Studies regarding the indiscriminate use of plant infusions during pregnancy are limited. Recent reports have shown that chronic flavonoid supplementation induces toxicity in vivo and raises the mortality rates of healthy subjects. Of note, significant tissue-specific changes in maternal liver, kidney, heart, and hippocampus and pups liver and kidney biochemical oxidative parameters were observed.
Our findings provide evidence that may support the need to control supplementation with the AQ of AS inflorescence extracts during gestation due to potential toxicity in vivo, which might be related, at least in part, to changes in tissue-specific redox homeostasis and enzymatic activity. Medicinal plants, which have contributed extensively to the development of modern medicine, have been used for centuries to treat several diseases and continue to play a significant role in drug discovery [ 1 ].
During recent decades, interest in identifying metabolites from plants that exert beneficial effects on human health has increased. Among these metabolites, antioxidants or free radical scavengers have received particular attention for their pharmacological potential [ 2 ].
AS is a medium-sized aromatic annual herb, commonly found in tropical and subtropical America [ 3 ]. This plant is collected before sunrise, and the naturally dried flowers are used throughout the year to treat several gastrointestinal disorders [ 4 ].
Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.
AS is considered a promising medicinal plant, which has been used for a long time in folk medicine, and is also a designated official vegetable drug in the Brazilian Pharmacopeia [ 3 ]. In fact, previous in vivo and in vitro studies have provided evidence supporting the traditional use of AS as an anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, antitumoral, and photoprotective agent [ 3567 ].
Investigations of chemical composition revealed the flavonoids quercetin, 3- O -methylquercetin, and luteolin as the main compounds in AS inflorescence extracts [ 9 ]. These isolated compounds have demonstrated, in vitro, some pharmacological activities, such as scavenging of reactive oxygen species ROS [ 459 ].
This scavenger property is very important considering that ROS and other reactive species have been implicated in the pathology of over human diseases [ 10 ]. The potential health benefits and general assumption that natural products are safe have increased the consumption of dietary flavonoid-based supplements by the general population, including pregnant women [ 11 ].
Pregnancy is a condition associated with large physiological changes resulting in numerous pregnancy-related symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, constipation, and heartburn [ 12 ]. Many women resort to the use of medicinal plants to alleviate these symptoms and one of the most widely consumed is A. Herbal products are preferred over prescription medications in pregnant women because they are believed to be safer for the fetus than modern medicines are [ 13 ].
However, unlike conventional drugs, the use of herbal medications is not strictly regulated and, unfortunately, the potentially toxic effects of excessive flavonoid intake are largely ignored [ 14 ]. At higher doses, flavonoids may act as mutagens, pro-oxidants that generate free radicals, and inhibitors of key enzymes in hormone metabolism, such as kinases [ 1516 ] and topoisomeras [ 1718 ].
Unrepaired or misrepaired oxidative DNA damage can result in DNA strand breaks and mutations [ 20 ] that may lead to irreversible preneoplastic lesions. Furthermore, high intakes of these compounds may potentiate other deleterious effects due to their diverse pharmacological properties, which may alter drug and amino acid metabolism, modulate the activity of environmental genotoxicants, and alter the activity of other key metabolizing enzymes [ 14 ].
Flavonoids also act as powerful antioxidants in vitro and in vivo by scavenging diverse reactive oxygen species ROS or inhibiting their formation [ 21 ].
Pharmacological investigations on Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC., Compositae.
In vitro studies also showed that treatment with components of energy drinks caffeine, taurine, and guarana with higher doses of flavonoids exerts cytotoxic effects on human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing ROS saturrioides [ 22 ]. Furthermore, fetuses exposed achgrocline a flavonoid-rich diet, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy, show higher ductal velocities, lower pulsatility indices, and larger right ventricles than those exposed to minimal amounts of these substances do [ 21 ].
Thus, in high doses, the adverse effects datureioides flavonoids may outweigh their benefits and caution should be exercised in ingesting them at higher levels achyroclnie would be obtained from a typical diet [ 14 ].
Any medication used during pregnancy, including medicinal plants, should always have its cost-effectiveness and benefit versus harm considered in every situation. The scarcity of data on the use of achrocline during pregnancy makes it even more critical. Several flavonoids have been shown to cross the hemato-placental barrier to accumulate in fetal tissue [ 23 ], and adaptations made by the fetus to cope with inappropriate nutrition may lead to morphological and physiological changes that persist into postnatal life [ 24 ].
Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with AS extract during pregnancy and lactation on redox parameters in Wistar rat dams and their offspring.
The following chemical compounds ssatureioides used: The standard of achyrobichalcone was isolated from ahyrocline of A. Two AS extracts were prepared and the medicinal plant to solvent proportion used was 7. The extraction time was eight days, and the extraction mixture was constantly stirred [ 4 ]. Approximately 20 mg AS was dissolved in 20 mL This solution was appropriately diluted with a methanol and 16 mM phosphoric acid solution 1: Liquid chromatography LC analysis of the AS was carried out following a method described previously [ 26 ].
The limits of detection and quantitation were determined using the equations described in the International Council for Harmonization guidelines. The results are expressed as the mean of flavonoid acchyrocline in g dry extract of three analyses. All experimental procedures were performed in accordance with the recommendations of the Brazilian Society for Science in Laboratory Animals. Male and female Wistar achyocline day-old were obtained from our breeding colony. These standard conditions were maintained throughout the experiments.
The pregnant rats were obtained from nulliparous females day-old, weighing — g caged with a single mature male 1 female: Prior to mating, all females were checked daily for two weeks to determine their estrous cycles by direct vaginal smear examination using light microscopy and selected during the sexual receptive phase of their estrous cycles proestrus [ 27 ].
In the morning, the presence of a vaginal plug, viable sperm, or both in the vaginal smear was regarded as successful mating. Achyroclkne day achyroclinne designated as gestation day 0 GD0. The dams were allowed to litter naturally, the delivery day was defined satureioidees postnatal day 0 PND0and the dams were housed with their litter until euthanasia at PND All female rats were observed for clinical symptoms of toxicity and mortality once a day throughout the study.
The body weights of the dams were assessed on GD0, 7, 14, and 20 and lactation day LD 0, 7, 14, and 21, and the body weight gain was calculated. Rats that died during the administration period were necropsied and simply examined.
On PND0, pups of both sexes were counted, weighed, and checked for the presence of external malformations and stillbirth.
During the lactation period, the pups were examined daily for clinical signs and mortality.
The viability indices of the pups were calculated for each litter on PND0, 7, 14, and 21 and at the terminal necropsy; the females were confirmed for gestation by counting the number of uterine implantation sites.
The total protein was quantified using the Lowry assay [ 28 ] and used to normalize all the data. SOD activity was measured by quantifying the inhibition of superoxide-dependent adrenaline achyroclone to adrenochrome [ 29 ]. CAT activity was evaluated by following the rate of decrease in hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 absorbance at nm [ 30 ].
GST was measured by the to produce a colored of dinitrophenyl thioether monitored at nm [ 32 ]. All protein oxidative satureioldes and effects on achyroclnie in dams and offspring rats were analyzed in tissue samples of the liver, kidney, heart, and cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum.
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The oxidative status of the thiol groups was assessed by quantification of the total reduced sulfhydryl SH groups. The carbonyl groups were determined as an index of the oxidative protein damage, based on the reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine DNPHas previously described [ 34 ].
Lipoperoxidation was determined by the quantification of TBARS generated from the reaction of the thiobarbituric acid with lipoperoxides in an acid-heating medium. TBARS was determined by measuring the absorbance using a spectrophotometer at nm [ 35 ].
The flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, 3-o-methylquercetin, and achyrobichalcone were the main components of both extracts, and their content in the HA The HA contained The AQ contained During pregnancy, no differences in weight gain were observed between the groups and no malformations were observed in the pups Table 2.
The treatments did not modify the sex ratio of the litters between the groups. During lactation, the pups exhibited no intoxication symptoms related to the treatments and no treatment-induced reduction in body weights.
The AQ- and HA-treated pups opened their eyes three to four days before the control group pups did Table 2. In the heart, we observed only a significant increase in GST activity in the treated groups compared with the control group. Oxidative lipid and protein damage was determined by assaying TBARS and protein carbonylation levels, which showed no significant difference in any of the analyzed tissues.
The results of tissue sample analysis of the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus are presented in Table 3. No significant differences occurred in the enzyme activities, and no oxidative damage was observed in central nervous system CNS structures. The biochemical data of the dams showed no increases in the levels of oxidative damage markers in the studied tissues the liver, heart, and kidney. In the heart tissue, no significant difference in enzymatic activities was observed Table 4.
The doses used were equivalent to the mean doses ingested in tea beverages by pregnant women [ 13 ]. Equivalent doses may be obtained by applying uncertainty factors of fold each for species and interspecies differences [ 36 ]. At these doses and conditions, reproductive and developmental toxicity endpoints were observed with treatment-related clinical signs of maternal and offspring toxicity in the delivery index. Furthermore, treatment-related effects, including a slight delay in the eye-opening completion rate, were found in both AS extract-treated groups.
Flavonoids are extensively and rapidly metabolized by the liver by methylation, sulfonation, glucuronidation, or a combination of these processes, which likely modulates the cellular bioavailability of these compounds [ 37 ]. Our results showed that AS extracts may induce symptoms of toxicity in dams in the delivery index; however, the exact mechanism has not yet been determined.
The number of pups in the AQ group was lower than that in the control and the HA groups, demonstrating that the AQ may contain compounds able to modify the oxidative satureioids parameters in dam and pups, and to have a negative impact on the delivery index and neonatal survival. Levels of enzymatic activity are considered an important factor that protects organs against the deleterious effect of potential toxicants [ 39 ], and our results showed that GST, CAT, and SOD stureioides in maternal livers were significantly increased.
In addition, GST also detoxifies endogenous electrophiles, which are usually the consequence of free-radical damage and may be an important participant in the mechanism mediating the repair of free-radical damage [ 40 ]. Alterations in GST activity likely altered the redox state and the antioxidant defenses of the tissue [ 41 ]. Finally, GST is also an endogenous switch for the control of signaling cascade pathways, and alterations in its activity may alter the regulatory balance of numerous kinase pathways [ 42 ].
A poor defense system allows the formation of superoxide anions and H 2 O 2. The superoxide radical can react with NOx, generating the highly reactive peroxynitrite anion, which can induce lipid oxidation and inactivate several key SH-bearing enzymes, depleting the SH protein content [ 44 ].
GST is a detoxification enzyme [ 42 ], which acts to detoxify endogenous compounds, such as peroxidized lipids, and thereby enables the breakdown acbyrocline xenobiotics. GST may also bind toxins and function as a transport protein, which explains the earlier term for GST, ligandin. These results corroborate those of satrueioides study that reported the hepatoprotective activity of achyrocline extract [ 45 ].
The major natural antioxidative components in AS extracts are flavonoids [ 3 ] and also phenolic compounds.
The antioxidant activities of AS extracts have been reported by other studies and flavonoids, phenolic compounds, and achyrobichalcone were found to be the most powerful radical scavenging compounds in the extracts. The cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus were chosen based on their critical role in the maintenance of basic brain activities. The frontal cortex has a crucial role in brain homeostasis during adaptive behavior through its involvement in decision-making [ 47 ].
The acquisition of new memories of events and places depends on the optimal functioning of the hippocampus [ 48 ]. In humans, the development of CNS connections occurs mainly during the intrauterine phase; however, in rats, it occurs mainly during the period from the last third of the gestation until approximately the first two weeks of the suckling phase [ 49 ].
Maternal nutrition has a significant effect on developmental processes during pregnancy and lactation.